are divided by application into deep and shallow well pumps.
Atmospheric air pressure
alows pumps to suck by pushing the water up the pipe when the pump draws
a vacuum. Atmospheric pressure is limited to about 100 kPa so in theory
pumps can suck 10 metres vertically. In practice this is limited to about
6 metres at sea level and 20 degrees C due to practical constraints. A pump
that is made for this application is called a SHALLOW WELL PUMP.
DEEP WELL PUMPS
are made to get water when the suction lift is greater than that what can
be handled by a shallow well pump.
SHALLOW WELL PUMPS
should be installed with the following as a guide.
If you are not familiar
with pumps we do advise you contact people with pump experience as pump
installation is not difficult but each installation may has its own
shallow well pumps can operate as a high pressure pump or automatic pressure
system when equipped with an Orange pressure system package or sold as a
packaged system. Packaged systems are similar to pumps and the same common
installation technique can be used for both.
lpm = liters per minute
kPa = kilopascals pressure
This pump is made to world standards. The Orange pumps are used to pump
water from rivers, dams, tanks, bores and wells.
The Orange pump or automatic
pressure system are used to supply most applications, houses, farms, stock
watering, the garden, small irrigation, hosing, tank filling and where ever
water is needed.
Pumps will suck down to about 6 metres at sea level. In practice for trouble
free installations this suction should not be exceeded. Suction is reduced
if the temperature of the fluid being pumped is over 20 deg C or above sea
Pumps operate with maximum
efficiency when the suction pipe is large, the pipe length short, and the
suction height low.
Pumps operate best on large size pipes.
The pipe on the discharge and suction should not be less than the pump thread
size If the distance is long consult a pipe friction table.
All pipe thread joins must be sealed and tightened to prevent air and water
leaks. Teflon tape should be used. Care should be taken not to cross thread
or over tighten pipe fittings.
Do not use thread sealant
on plastic pipe fittings unless you know what the long term effect of the
sealant will be on the fitting.
Pumps must be installed
with a foot valve at the end of the suction pipe if sucking water a long
way or a check valve installed close to the pump if sucking from a tank
Care must be taken not to stress the pump when connecting piping. Pipe weight
should be separately supported and pipe misalignment should not be corrected
by the pump.
It is good practice
to install the pump using:
Flexible or plastic pipe to minimise noise.
Barrel unions so the pump can be easily removed.
A gate or ball valve in the pump discharge to turn the water off
and act as a control valve.
- Pumps must be housed to protect them from the sun, rain, floods, freezing,
chemicals, dust, frogs, insects, and should be vented to allow motor heat
For the pump to operate the pump and suction pipe must be full of water.
To prime the pump unscrew
the priming plug and fill the pump and suction pipe. Replace the priming
plugs, then turn on the power. You may have to leave the priming plug loose
to allow air to escape. If your priming was successful allow the pump to
operate till all the air is flushed out of the suction pipe and pump. If
not successful try again. If the suction pipe is long they process of clearing
the air out of the suction pipe may take some time.
Pumps should not be run without water. This will cause heat and possible
pump or seal failure.
The Orange single phase 230 volt pump is equipped with a unique plug and
power extension lead. This connects the pump to a standard power outlet.
If used as a pressure
system the kit connects the pump to a switch and the extension cord is used
to connect the switch to the power outlet.
The pump will operate on a wide voltage range but care should be taken not
to operate the equipment on long extension leads as the voltage drop can
be considerable and cause motor problems.
If connected to 460
volts single phase or 415 volts 3 phase the pump must be wired by and electrician
and a contractor used to provide overload protection.
When commissioning 3
phase pumps shaft rotation can be incorrect. The rotation must be anti clockwise
when looking from the pump end. The pump should be flicked on to check rotation,
it is dangerous to run the pump in reverse, if incorrect change over any
2 of the power leads on the motor terminal block and the direction will
Shooting & Service
Pump fails to operate.
Check water source, it may be dry ?
Is there any electrical power ?
Pump may be operating in the sun or a badly vented housing, causing
the motor to over heat and the inbuilt thermal to open circuit. This may
take 30 minutes to reset.
The pump may have lost prime.
Water leakage coming from the pump shaft
This may be the normal drip that is expected from an operating pump or if
the water flow is appreciable then the pump seal should be replaced.
Pumps are electrically operated and must be kept out of wet or damp conditions.
Fingers must be kept clear of motor vent holes as the fan may cause injury.
Always turn the power off and pull out the plug if you are doing repairs
or adjustments on the pump.
The motor is fitted with an auto setting restart thermal which may start
If the electrical lead
becomes dammaged replace it do not attempt to repair the cord.
Items that can be checked and repaired inexpensively are seals, motor bearings,
impellers, diffusers, pressure tanks and pressure switches or controllers.
Items like motors or wet end melt down generally call for a new pump.
Most pumps will operate
for their life with little or no maintenance. A period of 4 to 5 years would
be expected before maintenance is required and then another 3 years would
be considered average before the pump needs replacement. Pumps can last
20 years if installed correctly and treated well.
When a pump fails the
cause of failure should be checked as pumps often fail due to installation
problems or problems that have nothing to do with the actual pump. When
installing a new pump if these problems can be fixed the new pump will give